Recue teams appeared at around 6.00 pm, after some miners managed to come on top alive. Basing its principles on normative ethical standards, the ethical decision making process seems quite straightforward. Rights theories maintain that there are things we cannot do against individuals because they are holders of moral rights. The study of ethics focuses on human relationships and what is considered morally correct in human behaviors. Despite advice, there were cracks and faults running through the mine walls that predisposed workers to workplace risks. IvyPanda. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large population endorses them. In the context of on-going consultations around the proposed UN Treaty for transnational business and human rights, the debate has recently focused on hard v. soft law, or mandatory v. voluntary initiatives. Aristotle’s virtue ethics theory is important in addressing many ethical problems in business and organization management because virtue and moral character “provides the wisdom necessary for applying rules in particular instances” (Hinman, 2006). This workshop will address the question of what works, in practice, to increase corporate accountability and support for human rights. Utilitarianism and personal identity. The protection of workers as per the formal labor regulations in the US and the rights ethical principles are solely the responsibility of the employer whilst employees are in the course of duty (Noda, 2011). This work is the outcome of a pilot project on business and human rights in countries where no National Action Plans exist for implementing the UN Guiding Principles. Virtue ethics assume that morally virtuous leaders tend to reason appropriately and their actions remain governed by their critical reasoning to consequentiality of the outcomes. Please click here to access the programme, briefing with Clifford Chance earlier this year, Business Ethics and Human Rights, from Theory to Practice, A feast of a debate on business and human rights. on M&As or disposals). Business Jargons Business Ethical Theories Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights… The strong hurricane could barely allow the fellow shift miners to rescue others at the juncture of the incidence, and this aspect probably might have required rescue experts. Human approach towards anticipation for maximizing of pleasure and elimination of suffering and pain brings about the fundamentals established in the realm of moral philosophies that date back to a distant past (Robertson & Walter, 2007). We utilize security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. Virtuous leadership is honesty and ethically right as leaders possessing these traits have the ability to protect the welfare of employees and the interests of the company in a balanced manner. Although less connected to the events that happened in the Upper Big Branch, there was a direct involvement of the company’s management, which the federal government considered negligent over the issues pertaining to workplace safety. Ciulla (2004) posits, “To be morally virtuous, you must reason well because reason tells you how to practice and when to practice a virtue” (p.325). Ethics and leadership effectiveness. Becoming more and more workable in terms of economist-driven formulations, further works on utilitarian as a moral philosophy led to the formation of two forms of intuitive ideas of maximizing good into ‘Act’ and ‘Rule’ utilitarianism. She explained how, compared to 10 and 5 years ago, companies are now much more committed to go deeper with their due diligence and integrate human rights into their key decision-making process (e.g. 2. Furthermore, evolving issues of presence of adaptive preferences that sometime deem uncontrollable as people accept such preferences due to low expectations presents a significant challenge to establish the basis of utilitarianism (Robertson & Walter, 2007). In J. Antonakis, A. Cianciolo & R. Sternberg (Eds. Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories. Though the social contract theory is not considered an actual "contract," it holds business ventures to very high standards by "imposing significant social responsibilities," writes Hasnas in his 1998 article, "The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed." What’s your deadline? Business Ethics – Theories of Business Ethics: Teleological and Deontological Theories. Employees and even civilians are constantly seeking justice and fairness across all forms of living including in their professional lives as well as their social lives. Dr Opi Outhwaite opened the proceedings with a paper on government procurement, and the gap between hard law and soft law on human rights. Laws are rules that must be obeyed, both voluntarily and involuntarily, whereas ethics are voluntary. The foremost portion of business ethics understands the theory of rights as one of the core principles in the five-item ethical positions that deem essential in the understanding of moral business practices (Gardiner, 2003). ), The nature of leadership (pp. A deadening explosion had cleaved through the underground coalmine and unfortunately trapped an unidentified number of shift miners inside the mine. Behaving ethically is more than obeying the law -- it is expecting your rights to be upheld and upholding the rights of others through ethical duties. Carefulness in business practice is one of the business principles considered essential in the moral philosophy. Virtues form a fundamental part of moral philosophy and by failing to observe the importance of protecting employees through safety measures, the Massey Company and its management was not virtuous in their leadership. 1. If an interest is defended by a right, it should not be thwarted even if doing so might be good for other reasons. Shoemaker, D. (1999). Deontological theories. The workshop ended with a presentation by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal and Zhiwei Hu on their year-long project about CSR guidance and company reporting in China. Among the five-item ethical positions identified in ethical leadership and business practices is the justice theory, which presumes that individuals should be treated with the highest dignity and accorded what they deserve in the most desirable manner. This may include: IvyPanda. Teleological Theories: The term ‘teleological’ is … Many firms also havedetailed codes of conduct, developed and enforced by teams of ethicsand compliance personnel. Rights theory holds that any individual or business purposes should not subject other humans to any form of mistreatment. The basis of the law is social relations which determine its content and character. The issue of government procurement can also be seen as an international trade concern. The ways we conduct business are somehow expected to be different than our normal interactions. It considers ethics defined by duties and rights. As Shoemaker (1999) postulates, growth in the legal frameworks governing societies, communities, and even nations have resulted in considerable influences on how corporate business view legal issues. 1. One of the areas where utilitarianism proves imperative is where it contributes to the notion that defending an oppressed majority against the few privileged is more virtuously good. A right defends an interest that should not be frustrated. Aristotle once postulated that the foremost function of a human being as an upright creature is reasoning and moral reasoning definitely requires virtuous and sound minds. Doug Specht – a chartered cartographer – examined the history of the cartographic ‘gaze’ and how this became embedded in new technologies; he then explored the limitations this led to, and offered ways of moving forward, through what he called sousveillance projects – aimed to break away from ‘the cartographic gaze’ to create new representations of the world that avoid the process of ‘re-othering’ and further subjugation. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. The ethics of care stipulate that individuals should be capable of, if necessary, meeting the demands of others and themselves in a mutual rapport. professional specifically for you? The right of individuals or organizations to express opinions or share information freely in written medium. Types of Teleological Ethical Theories. Journal of Value Inquiry, 33(1), 183-199. Arnold et al. Ethics of virtuous behavior in organizations assume that individuals should be honest and righteous in their actions, which should not rely on consequences of bad intentions, but virtuous acts (Gardiner, 2003). The justice theory is one of the business ethics theories that are critical to mistreatment and injustice treatments of persons especially in organizations. On this day, nine of the shift miners had just managed to come out of the cars and while walking towards the exit end of the mine, they heard a loud blast of air blow past them. How does the meaning of the word ‘right’ when used as a noun (as in ‘a right’) differ from its meaning when used as an adjective (as in ‘the right thing to do’)? Non-suffering, fair treatment, and virtuous leadership are all part of ethical leadership. A critical reflection on utilitarianism as the basis for psychiatric ethics. Journal of Unification Studies, 12(1), 41-56. These rights are natural rights and conventional rights as created by the society in which that person lives in. Massey and the Upper Big Branch had little respect and consideration over the concerns and immunity rights as per the ethical theory that enables employees to have certain powers over a normative situation. In the wide sense of moral soundness, good leadership associates with good ethics where integrity, transparency, and moral obligations related to competence, justice, duty, and the great goodness (Ciulla, 2004). Although no ethical framework is perfect or fits a particular era completely, Rawls’s justice theory has distinct advantages when applied to business in the twenty-first century. Social rights are widely recognized in developed nations nowadays. Lack of these essential safety precautions underscores a violation of safety requirements and the 2011 was a similar breach to safety principles as they undermined the employee’s justice. The welfare of the workers in the Upper Big Branch had long been a subject of confrontation with the government mines and safety body (MSHA) that indicated the presence of a series of previous safety violations and uncared for fatalities. IvyPanda. Since the leadership of Don Blankenship, the company persistently aroused considerable ethical dilemmas and fined millions of money regularly for violation of federal safety standards and environmental disasters that emerged from unethical business practices. Justice and fair practice should entail a relationship between employees and employers that include permissibility of important secrets in business-related negotiations (Robertson & Walter, 2007). Management teams should be virtuous so that their actions and regulations that they develop do not contradict the real meaning of ethical leadership. The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. As the need for mutual understanding between workers and companies intensifies, organizational discourse is currently revolving around ethical business principles that are paramount for organizational success in the modern day businesses. Of course, every dilemma can be dissected using more than one approach, and thus, the end result or decision may […] Morally virtuous leaders are competent as they act or undertake their jobs in the right way. IvyPanda. The rights theory serves based on positions of justice and rights that consider moral leadership as that which entails just treatment and respect towards individual rights The rights theory of business ethics rests upon the notion that all individuals possess the right towards life and thus they should be treated with the highest respect and dignity required. The Massey Energy Company and its Upper Big branch lacked considerable care of its miners at it breached rules and regulations and even violated workplace safety rules. Noda, K. (2011). The case of death in Massey’s Energy Company represents considerable lapses in business ethics experienced in the company in which management was responsible. It is the only moral … Need a custom Essay sample written from scratch by You’re used to rights-talk from legal discussions. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Dr Outhwaite highlighted the leverage that states have, to influence their suppliers (and their human rights agenda), given their significant purchasing power; and the long-established precedent that exists for the use of government procurement as a tool to promote social policies. Business Ethics and Human Rights This briefing updates the scope of the challenge to business with more recent developments. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Perhaps among the most practicable theories that fit perfectly in the case of death tragedy at Massey Energy Company is the care theory that presents the realm intentions of ethical business practices. John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. It gives an overview of some practical tools and frameworks that organisations can use to minimise the risk of human rights abuses in all their operations, including some recent examples of good practice. The right to express ideas or opinions with freedom as an individual. This aspect contrasted the notion of ethical business practices that percepts that organizations should undertake their businesses morally by ensuring that they preserve justice, employee freedom, and safeguard human dignity (Ciulla, 2004). A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine. “In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society, it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions” (Gardiner, 2003, p. 297). Seven of their fellow miners died instantly and two of them managed to come out alive, but badly injured. Recent work in ethical theory and its implications for business ethics. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. Business ethics involve following business principles that entail morality in leadership as well as in several other aspects of businesses. Your privacy is extremely important to us. Ethical Egoism: The ethical egoism is a teleological theory that posits, an action is good if it produces or is likely to produce results that maximize the person’s self-interest as defined by him, even at the expense of others. 302 -328). The storyline of the explosion indicated that the rescue team appeared at the scene some hours after the explosion, meaning that the company had no specialists to counter an explosion. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. After Bentham, Stewart, and Moore, successive economist-driven philosophers concluded that the ultimate good of utilitarianism should entail satisfaction of preferences and people should choose their own intrinsic value. For a natural rights theorist, morally permissible actions are ones that respect rights, and morally impermissible actions are ones that violate rights. Contemporary theorists, who consider caring theory as the most appropriate approach in business ethics, have noticed that since justice, rights, and utility all come from laws and regulations, which should be impartial or impersonal, they undermine the self-dependency of ethical behavior, which should be solely innate (Noda, 2011). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. The proposed UN Treaty on Transnational Business and Human Rights; UNGP implementation through National Action Plans and other initiatives; Collaboration between state and business agents on human rights issues; Voluntary initiatives to help businesses increase their support for human rights; Recent developments in whistleblowing policy, and implications for human rights; The role of the state in company disclosures on social responsibility and human rights. Under the professional ethics of business practice, all employers have the responsibility to take care of all their employees while in their course of duty. Philosophers believe that rightness or wrongness results from consequences of certain actions and this aspect has long possessed a significant contribution to the understanding of utilitarianism. The notion of ethical business practices has led to the formation of theories including the utilitarian theory, rights theory, justice theory, caring theory, and virtues theory, which have since been integral in the understanding of business ethics. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 2(1), 1-4. Immunity is the right over individual normative situation. Dr Kit Barton, our ‘in-house’ expert, built a convincing case in favour of universal values, based on the distinction between cultural relativism (which exists and is factually justified) and ethical relativism (which should not exist, because it would lead to unacceptable circumstances). The company was faulty in failing to ensure that its business practices followed federal state regulations and ethical business standards that intended to protect the welfare of the employees. 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